Does a Rabbit Need Shots or Vaccinations? Vet Approved Facts & FAQ

Rabbits, like other pets, require proper medical care and attention to ensure they lead healthy, happy lives, and this includes vaccinating them against infection. Vaccinations play a crucial role in protecting rabbits from severe infectious diseases that can be life-threatening. In the United States, viral diseases are not a common source of clinical disease in rabbits, but there are some areas, as well as other parts of the world, where viral disease poses a significant threat to rabbit health.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the importance of rabbit vaccinations, the types of vaccines available, how to create an effective vaccination schedule, and tips for supporting your rabbit’s overall health and well-being.


The Importance of Vaccinations for Rabbits

Vaccinations are essential in safeguarding rabbits against severe infectious diseases, which can otherwise be life-threatening. By vaccinating your rabbit, you are giving them the best chance at a healthy life and preventing the spread of diseases within the rabbit community. Although rabbit viral disease is not widespread in the US, there is always the risk that this could change if affected populations become more widespread, which can happen when vaccination rates drop.

rabbit getting a vaccination
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How Vaccines Work

Vaccines work by introducing a weakened or inactivated form of a virus or bacteria into the rabbit’s immune system. This exposure helps the rabbit’s body recognize and fight off future infections more effectively by producing specific antibodies. The immune system then remembers the pathogen, allowing it to respond quickly and efficiently if the rabbit is exposed to the same disease in the future.

Common Misconceptions About Rabbit Vaccinations

Many people mistakenly believe that indoor rabbits do not need vaccinations, or that vaccines can cause more harm than good. However, research has shown that vaccines are safe and effective in preventing severe diseases in rabbits, with a extremely low incidence of adverse reactions. Indoor rabbits can still be exposed to diseases through indirect contact, such as through their owner’s clothing or shoes, or from biting insects like mosquitoes, making vaccinations necessary for all rabbits.

It is essential to consult with a rabbit-savvy veterinarian to address any concerns about rabbit vaccinations. They can provide accurate information and guidance on the best course of action for your pet’s health, debunking any myths or misconceptions surrounding vaccinations.


Types of Rabbit Vaccines and Diseases They Prevent

Myxomatosis Vaccine

Myxomatosis is a highly contagious disease in rabbits caused by the myxoma virus. It spreads through direct contact with an infected rabbit or via insect vectors, such as fleas and mosquitoes. The vaccine helps protect rabbits from this devastating virus and should be administered as part of their regular vaccination schedule. Vaccinated rabbits may still show some clinical signs if exposed to the Myxomatosis virus, but in unvaccinated rabbits, infection is almost always fatal. So much so that it was deliberately introduced in Australia in the 1950s in an attempt to eradicate the feral rabbit population, which had decimated crops and farmland after being introduced to the country so they could be hunted.

Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) Vaccine

Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is another severe and often fatal illness that affects rabbits. Caused by a calicivirus, RHD can lead to sudden death due to internal bleeding and organ failure. There are two types of RHD (RHD1 and RHD2), and vaccines are available for both strains. It is crucial to vaccinate your rabbit against RHD to prevent the spread of this deadly disease.

vet weighing the rabbit
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Emerging Vaccines

New vaccines and developments in rabbit healthcare emerge from time to time. It is essential to stay informed and consult with your veterinarian to ensure your rabbit receives the most up-to-date care. As research progresses, additional vaccines may become available to protect rabbits from other diseases.

Vaccines Based on Geographical Risks

Certain diseases and risks may be more prevalent in specific geographic locations. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if additional vaccinations are necessary based on your region. For example, some areas may have a higher prevalence of certain viruses, making it essential to vaccinate against those specific diseases.


Initial Vaccinations: When to Start the Process

The timing of initial vaccinations depends on the specific vaccine and the rabbit’s age. Generally, rabbits can receive their first vaccinations between 5–10 weeks of age. Your veterinarian will provide guidance on the appropriate timing for your rabbit based on their age, health, and the particular vaccine being administered.

Professional veterinarian vaccinating bunny on white background
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Booster Shots

Booster shots are necessary to maintain your rabbit’s immunity against diseases. The frequency of booster shots depends on the vaccine and your rabbit’s lifestyle. Most rabbits require annual booster shots, but your veterinarian may recommend a different schedule based on your rabbit’s specific needs.


Side Effects of Rabbit Vaccinations

Vaccinating your rabbit is an essential part of responsible pet ownership, as it helps protect them from potentially fatal diseases. While vaccinations are generally safe and effective, they can sometimes cause side effects. These side effects are usually short-lived and not a cause for concern, and far outweigh the effects of the diseases they prevent. They include:

  • Localized swelling or redness at the injection site: This is a common reaction to vaccinations and usually resolves on its own within a few days. If the swelling persists or worsens, consult your veterinarian.

  • Lethargy or mild fever: Rabbits may feel tired or have a slight fever following vaccination. This is a normal response to the immune system reacting to the vaccine. However, if your rabbit’s lethargy or fever persists for more than 24–48 hours, contact your veterinarian.

  • Loss of appetite: Some rabbits may experience a temporary loss of appetite after receiving a vaccine. Monitor your rabbit’s food intake and ensure they continue to eat and drink water. If their appetite does not return to normal within a day or two, consult your veterinarian.

Rare Side Effects

In extremely rare cases, rabbits may experience more severe side effects following vaccination. These side effects require immediate veterinary attention. They include:

  • Anaphylactic reactions: Anaphylactic reactions are severe allergic reactions that can occur within minutes to hours after vaccination. Signs may include difficulty breathing, rapid heart rate, pale gums, and collapse. If you notice any of these signs in your rabbit after vaccination, seek emergency veterinary care.

  • Development of abscesses: In extremely rare cases, rabbits may develop an abscess at the injection site. This is a localized infection that may require surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  • Vaccine-induced disease: Although very rare, there have been cases where rabbits develop the disease they were vaccinated against due to an inadequate immune response or other factors. If your rabbit displays symptoms of the disease they were vaccinated for, consult your veterinarian immediately.

Monitoring Your Rabbit After Vaccination

It is essential to monitor your rabbit closely after vaccination to ensure they do not experience any adverse side effects. Keep an eye on their behavior, appetite, and the injection site for any signs of a reaction. If you notice any concerning signs or if your rabbit’s condition worsens, contact your veterinarian as soon as possible.

The Dangers of Skipping Rabbit Vaccinations

Failing to vaccinate your rabbit leaves them vulnerable to severe infectious diseases, which can be life-threatening. Vaccinations are a crucial aspect of responsible pet ownership and rabbit healthcare, helping to prevent unnecessary suffering and death.

Unvaccinated rabbits may develop long-term health complications if they contract an infectious disease. These complications can negatively impact their quality of life and may require ongoing veterinary care. In some cases, these diseases can lead to permanent disabilities or even death.

Treating rabbits with severe infectious diseases can be costly, especially if long-term care is required. Vaccinations are a cost-effective way to prevent these diseases and protect your rabbit’s health, saving you money in the long run and ensuring your rabbit has the best chance at a healthy life.


Tips for Supporting Your Rabbit’s Overall Health and Well-Being

Clean and Hygienic Living Environment

Provide your rabbit with a clean and hygienic living environment by regularly cleaning their hutch or cage and providing fresh bedding. This helps prevent the build-up of harmful bacteria and reduces the risk of infections and illnesses.

Cute rabbit playing in the tunnel
Image Credit: Anikibi, Shutterstock

Balanced Diet

Feed your rabbit a balanced diet consisting of hay, vegetables, pellets, and occasional treats to ensure they receive the necessary nutrients for good health. A proper diet supports a strong immune system, helping your rabbit fight off potential infections.

Regular Exercise and Mental Stimulation

Allow your rabbit plenty of time and space for exercise and play. Provide toys and activities to keep them mentally stimulated and engaged. Regular exercise helps maintain a healthy weight, supports a strong immune system, and improves overall well-being.



Although the rate of viral infection in rabbits is relatively low in the US, vaccination is an important part of responsible pet ownership, for keeping both your rabbit, and the rabbit population, healthy. If you take good care of your rabbit, your rabbit will return the favor with love and companionship!

Featured Image Credit: Anna-Kharchenko, Shutterstock

The post Does a Rabbit Need Shots or Vaccinations? Vet Approved Facts & FAQ appeared first on Pet Keen.

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